Memory… Retaining information over time



Encoding        Getting information into memory

Storage          Retaining information over time

Retrieval         Taking information out of storage.


                          The Three Parts of Memory


 Sensory Memory - Holds information from the world in it's original sensory form for only an instant, not much longer than the brief time it is exposed to the visual, auditory, and other senses.



Echoic Memory - Is the name given to auditory sensory memory in which information is retained for up to several seconds

Iconic Memory - Is the name given to visual sensory memory in which information is retained only for about 1\4 of a second


Working-Short Term Memory - A limited-capacity memory system in which information is retained for as long as 30 seconds.

Capacity = magic number = 7 plus or minus 2 (5-9)

Rehearsal - Consciously repeating that which you are trying to remember.

Chunking -  Breaking large pieces of information into smaller chunks.  EX.

3378497782 becomes 337 784 9782.

Either information is continuously rehearsed, passed onto long term memory or lost forever.


Long-Term Memory - Is a relatively permanent type of memory that holds huge amounts of information for a long period of time.

The storehouse of long-term memory is indeed staggering. John von Neuman (computer scientist) estimates that our storage capacity at 280 quintillion bits, basically that number means that our storage capacity is virtually unlimited.



Episodic Memory    It is as if the mind is the mind is a sensory recorder, recording, feelings, sound, sight, etc. It is the remembering of the “story” of life. Remembering the plots of books, Seinfeld episodes, what happened in study hall in high school are examples of episodic memory.


Semantic Memory  general academic knowledge learned in school, words, etc. This is also called rote memory. This is the more difficult way to memorize.